ASAIO Journal

Artificial Intelligence Algorithm for Screening Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction Using Electrocardiography

  • Jul. 2020
  • by Jinwoo Cho et. al.

Although heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a common clinical syndrome and can be modified by the administration of appropriate medical therapy, there is no adequate tool available to perform reliable, economical, early-stage screening. To meet this need, we developed an interpretable artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm for HFrEF screening using electrocardiography (ECG) and validated its performance. This retrospective cohort study included two hospitals. An AI algorithm based on a convolutional neural network was developed using 39,371 ECG results from 17,127 patients. The internal validation included 3,470 ECGs from 2,908 patients. Furthermore, we conducted external validation using 4,362 ECGs from 4,176 patients from another hospital to verify the applicability of the algorithm across different centers. The end-point was to detect HFrEF, defined as an ejection fraction <40%. We also visualized the regions in 12 lead ECG that affected HFrEF detection in the AI algorithm and compared this to the previously documented literature. During the internal and external validation, the areas under the curves of the AI algorithm using a 12 lead ECG for detecting HFrEF were 0.913 (95% confidence interval, 0.902–0.925) and 0.961 (0.951–0.971), respectively, and the areas under the curves of the AI algorithm using a single-lead ECG were 0.874 (0.859–0.890) and 0.929 (0.911–0.946), respectively. The deep learning-based AI algorithm performed HFrEF detection well using not only a 12 lead but also a single-lead ECG. These results suggest that HFrEF can be screened not only using a 12 lead ECG, as is typical of a conventional ECG machine, but also with a single-lead ECG performed by a wearable device employing the AI algorithm, thereby preventing irreversible disease progression and mortality.


Jinwoo Cho, ByeongTak Lee, Joon-Myoung Kwon, Yeha Lee, Hyunho Park, Byung-Hee Oh, Ki-Hyun Jeon, Jinsik Park, and Kyung-Hee Kim

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