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Deep Learning-Based Automated Segmentation of Prostate Cancer on Multiparametric MRI: Comparison with Experienced Uroradiologists

  • Dec. 2020
  • by Wonmo Jung et. al.

PURPOSE
To compare the performance of deep learning based prostate cancer (PCa) segmentation with manual segmentation of experienced uroradiologists.

METHOD AND MATERIALS
From 2011 Jan to 2018 Apr, 350 patients who underwent prostatectomy for prostate cancer were enrolled retrospectively. To collect histopathological ground truth, pathologic slides of whole resected prostate were scanned and PCa lesions were drawn by a uropathologist with 25 years' experience. With reference to the histopathological lesion, radiological ground truth of PCa was drawn on the T2 weighted image by a uroradiologist with 19 years' experience. A U-Net type deep neural network, in which the encoder part has more convolution blocks than the decoder, was trained for segmentation. Four different MR sequences including T2 weighted images, diffusion weighted images (b = 0, 1000), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images, were used as input images after affine registration. Besides the automatic segmentation by the deep neural network, two experienced uroradiologists marked suspected sectors of PCa among 39 sectors provided by PIRADS-v2 after reviewing same images of four MR sequences. The manual segmentation performance of uroradiologists was measured using the number of sectors that coincided with the ground truth PCa lesion.

RESULTS
The dice coefficient scores (DCSs) achieved by two uroradiologists were 0.490 and 0.310 respectively. The DCS was calculated based on the number of sectors. The DCS of automatic segmentation by a deep neural network was 0.558 (calculated by the number of pixels) which is slightly better than the average (0.40) DCSs of uroradiologists.

CONCLUSION
Automated segmentation of PCa on multiparametric MR based on histopathologically confirmed lesion label achieved comparable performance with experienced uroradiologist.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE/APPLICATION
The automated segmentation of prostate cancer using a deep neural network not only reduce time consuming work but also provide reliable location and size information required for treatment decision.

Author

Wonmo Jung, MD, PhD, Sung Il Hwang, MD, Sejin Park, MS, Jin-Kyeong Sung, MD, PhD, Kyu-Hwan Jung, PhD, Hyungwoo Ahn, MD, PhD, Hak Jong Lee, MD, PhD, Sang Youn Kim, Myoung Seok Lee, MD, Younggi Kim

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